Portrait of the Vendramin Family, 1540-1550/60

 

This week during the course of my Renaissance history teaching I have spent quite a long time looking at a marvelous painting by Titian, the Portrait of the Vendramin Family. Titian completed the painting on a commission from the noble Venetian merchant Gabriele Vendramin in the years 1543-47. Originally Gabriele Vendramin displayed it in a prominent room in his palace. These days you can find it in the National Gallery, London. The painting is in oils on canvas and measures 206.1 x 288.5 cm – so it makes for an imposing sight:

There is a great deal to be said about this extraordinarily powerful work. I think that it is immediately clear that this is no ordinary representation of the male members of a family, although the painting serves that purpose. The three main figures are, from left to right, are Lunardo Vendramin (Andrea’s son, who died in 1547, before the painting was completed, and whose portrait was moved closer to the centre of the composition some time during the painting), Gabriele Vendramin himself and Gabriele’s brother Andrea, who also died in 1547.

There is, as I have said, an enormous amount to be said about this painting, its meanings and how it can be interpreted in the context of Venetian culture in the sixteenth century. But I don’t want to burden you with a huge amount of text. So I will say this – the painting works extremely hard, by making a range of gestures and associations, to make the Vendramin family somehow sacred, or to shine on them a powerful, sacred light.

Although it was not uncommon, long before Titian completed this painting, to include family members and commissioners in altarpieces and paintings with sacred subjects, the inclusion of an altar in a family portrait – to be displayed in a private house – was highly unusual. Upon the altar is placed a reliquary – an vessel for holding sacred relics – that supposedly held fragments from the ‘true cross’ upon which Jesus had been crucified. This was no mere coincidence.

In 1369, an earlier Andrea Vendramin, had been given the relics of the ‘true cross’ that we see in the painting – after a long journey that began with them being smuggled out of Jerusalem in 1360. Not long after Andrea became associated with a powerful miracle. During a procession the cross was accidentally dropped from the Rialto bridge. Rather than fall into the water, however, the cross allegedly floated above the water. Several of those in the procession jumped in to retrieve the cross, but only one – Andrea Vendramin himself – was able to retrieve the cross and restore it to its rightful place in the procession. The miracle was recorded in this painting by Bellini, completed in 1500:

Now we can begin to make sense of Titian’s painting. Some have suggested – persuasively in my view – that the Andrea Vendramin in the painting represents both Gabriele’s father and the Andrea who participated in this miracle. Perhaps that explains his firm grip on the altar – a suggestive gesture that indicates perhaps his rather more direct connection to the sacred than that of the others depicted. By placing the reliquary of the true cross in the painting, Titian and Gabriele reminded Venetians of the Vendramin family’s association with a real miracle – a miracle suggestive of the divine favour that the family enjoyed.

The Sheldonian Theatre – Ancient and Modern

I will continue to blog about the things that I encounter as I teach my Renaissance Special Subject. Today, however, I have found something much closer to my research interest – the history of science in the 17th and 18th centuries.

Today’s thing is very easy to find, and it is very well-worth visiting. It is the Sheldonian Theatre, one of the most important buildings in Oxford University. The theatre was paid for by Gilbert Sheldon (1598-1677), who ended his career as Archbishop of Canterbury.

Why is this building important in the history of science? Firstly, it was built by someone who would now be understood as a scientist. Although Wren is today most famous for his architectural work, of which St. Paul’s Cathedral is the most famous example, he had deep scientific interests. You can see this if you pay close attention to the Sheldonian Theatre.

Outwardly, it looks much like a building in the classical style, designed like so many other buildings in that time in accordance with Roman Architecture. In fact Wren drew inspiration from an ancient Roman building that had been drawn by Sebastiano Serlio (1475-1554) – the Theatre of Marcellus in Rome.

Design of the floor-plan of the Theatre of Marcellus from Serlio’s Seven Books of Architecture (1540).

 

Modern Seating Plan of the Theatre

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The Sheldonian Theatre

So does this building just show us that Wren copied ancient architectural ideas, in spite of his own engagement with the most modern ideas of his time? Actually, the answer is ‘no’. One remarkable feature of the building is its flat internal ceiling, which actually supports much of the weight of the roof structure and cupola above it. The ceiling is decorated with (removable) painted panels but in the original design it fulfilled a load-bearing function, something that should have been impossible because there were no timbers long enough to bridge the gap.

The painted panels are beautiful, but they conceal the ingenuity of the design used by Wren.

 

How did Wren get a flat ceiling that would also help hold up the roof? He turned to the mathematician John Wallis, who came up with an ingenious solution. Rather than explain myself, I quote from the blog ‘Maths in the City‘:

”Wallis’ devised an ingenious pattern of interlocking beams, so that every beam was supported at both ends – either by the walls or by other beams – while every beam also supported the ends of two other beams.  So for every beam, the downward forces from those resting on it are balanced by the upward forces from the beams, or wall, supporting it.   In an impressive feat of calculation, Wallis demonstrated that his geometrical flat floor could carry loads when supported by the walls alone by solving  a set of 25×25 simultaneous equations using just pen and paper!”

This is a model showing us what Wallis’s solution looked like:

Wallis’s Ingenious Solution

 

Many of Wren’s buildings concealed astonishing technical solutions, based on new ideas in mathematics and physics, beneath a veneer of ancient design rules.